[2] On 24 October 1969 OPS 8455 was placed into a higher-than-planned orbit by another 23B due to an engine failing to cut off after completing its planned burn, however the payload was able to correct its own orbit. The launch of KH-8 #39 on 26 June 1973 also failed to orbit when the Agena had a fuel valve failure, preventing engine start. [6] Star-37E stages were also used on the two Voyager launches, but the stages were considered part of the payload instead of part of the rocket. A Centaur is shown being stacked onto the Core vehicle at LC 40 in Figure K. The countdown on launch day typically starts at L-750 mins for a TIVB Centaur. Now held by. The RP-1/LOX combination was replaced by a room-temperature fuel whose oxidizer did not require cryogenic storage. The projected performance was a bit underwhelming. Starty Titan IIs also were flown in NASA's Gemini manned space program in the mid-1960s. A Titan ... A Titan–3D kiegészül egy Centaur DT nagy energiájú szilárd hajtóanyagú fokozattal. Centaur 3D models for download, files in 3ds, max, c4d, maya, blend, obj, fbx with low poly, animated, rigged, game, and VR options. Titan 3B je súhrnný názov pre niekoľko variantov a konceptov používajúcich vylepšené verzie prvého a druhého stupňa Titanu II. Nearly four years passed before the cause of the failure was determined: an improperly installed mounting bracket inside the liquid oxygen (LOX) tank. The Titan 23B was launched from SLC-4W at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Its main payload was the GAMBIT (KH-8 reconnaissance) satellites, although the final two 23B vehicles carried Jumpseat SIGNIT satellites and had some minor upper stage modifications for them. The original plan was for this flight to carry the Viking Dynamic Simulator (VDS), a model of the Viking spacecraft. La NASA l'a également utilisé de manière marginale pour lancer tous les vaisseaux du programme Gemini ainsi que quelques sondes spatiales telles que Cassini. The Centaur T of the Titan-IV based on the Centaur G and Centaur G-Prime, with diameter of 4.32 m. The Centaur G / G-Prime were planned as future kick-stages for payloads on the Space Shuttle. Titan 3BAS2: Configuration of Titan 3B proposed by Martin in mid-1960's. Voyager 1's launch almost failed because Titan's second stage shut down too early, leaving 1,200 pounds (540 kg) of propellant unburned. To help fund the escalating Vietnam War and the new War on Poverty, Congress drastically reduced the funding of the civilian space program. Liquid oxygen is dangerous to use in an enclosed space, such as a missile silo, and cannot be stored for long periods in the booster oxidizer tank. Never flown. Má nosnost až 17100 kg na nízkou dráhu, nebo 3600 kg na dráhu únikovou. Titan 402 used an IUS upper stage to put 2.86 tons to GEO from the Cape. Helios-program esetén a hordozóegység hossza 48,77 méter, átmérője 3,05 méter. Titan 403 was a no-upper-stage version that could put 14.89 tons into polar LEO from Vandenberg. Titan 3E – amerykańska rakieta nośna budowana przez spółkę Martin Marietta (obecnie Lockheed Martin), a także pierwsza rakieta Titan wyposażona w stopień Centaur, dotychczas używany w rakietach Atlas.Używana była do wysyłania sond międzyplanetarnych. 54) Titan 3B: Titan 3B-25 / Agena D: 14 Jan 70: Success: KH-8 25 GAMBIT: 55) Titan 3C: Titan 3C-18: 8 Apr 70: Success: Vela Hotel 11 / Vela 6A, Vela Hotel 12 / Vela 6B Die Entwicklung der Titan I begann 1955. [1]:160, Media related to Titan IIIE at Wikimedia Commons, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 41, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "TITAN IIIE/CENTAUR D-IT SYSTEMS SUMMARY", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Titan_IIIE&oldid=995917951, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Carried the Viking 1 orbiter and lander to. [4] Another failure occurred later the same year, when on 20 May a Titan III(24)B malfunctioned during the launch of KH-8 #35. 23 flights took place from 1971–84, with two failures. It was launched from Vandenberg between 1971 and 1982 with KH 9 and KH 11 on board. Michigan State University Libraries Special Collections Division Reading Room Index to the Comic Art Collection "Comic Book Magazine" to "Comic Book Villains" 1 Variants 2 Types 3 Special Equipment 4 Bosses 5 Heroes 6 NPCs 7 Notes Regular: These normal centaurs have a light-brown hide. Die Titan war von den USA eigentlich als Ersatz für die Atlas-Interkontinentalrakete konzipiert. AFSATCOM USAF satellite Titan 3b - SPACE TOPIC - Vandenberg AFB Mar 9, 1975. All launches consisted of KH-8 satellites. Titan 3B for deep space missions with Centaur upper stage, Algol strapons for liftoff thrust augmentation. Titan 3C7 American orbital launch vehicle. Several modifications to the Centaur were necessary to accommodate the more powerful booster. Never flown. NASA needed a launch vehicle more powerful than Atlas-Centaur to send heavier planetary probes like Viking and Voyager into space in the 1970s. Titan 3C7: Variant of Titan 3C with seven segment solid motors. They appear in various places in Greece (Act I) and are proficent with bows. A four-stage configuration was available, with a Star-37E being the additional upper stage. Carried the Viking 2 orbiter and lander to Mars. Seria rakiet Titan 3B składała się aż z pięciu wariantów: . The technician responsible for installing it had found that the normal tool used to screw bolts into place was too short to reach the bracket. The Titan 33B was a Titan 23B with the Agena (which had a smaller diameter than the Titan) enclosed in an enlarged fairing, in order to allow larger payloads to be launched. Never flown. All seven launches were conducted from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 41 in Cape Canaveral, Florida. As a "Proof Flight", it was planned to have the same trajectory as the Viking mission to Mars that was scheduled for launch in 1975. Configuration of Titan 3B proposed by Martin in mid-1960's. Variant of Titan 3C with seven segment solid motors. The KH-8 was double the size of its predecessor but still well below the Titan's lift capability. The Centaur stage also contained the guidance computer for the entire launch vehicle. 33 flights were made from 1966 to 1971, with one failure. It was decided to switch to the Titan family over the Atlas used for KH-7 because it had substantially more lift capability and also its conventional two-stage design and hypergolic propellants made for a simpler and more reliable launch vehicle than the quirky Atlas. The first stage consisted of a ground ignited Aerojet LR-87 liquid propellant rocket, while the second stage consisted of an LR91 liquid propellant rocket. $2.00 shipping. Monsters > Beastman > Centaur Centaurs are half-horse, half-men and belong to the category Beastmen. Despite the failure, at least one important goal was achieved. Titan 3B for deep space missions with Centaur upper stage, Algol strapons for liftoff thrust augmentation. The Centaur T of the Titan-IV based on the Centaur G and Centaur G-Prime, with diameter of 4.32 m. The Centaur G / G-Prime were planned as future kick-stages for payloads on the Space Shuttle. [citation needed], While the KH-8 was the original raison d'être for the Titan IIIB's existence, as well as its primary payload, the booster was also used for Jumpseat SIGINT satellites and military comsats. It consisted of four separate rockets. A further development was the Titan 3B which used the Agena D upper stage instead of the Transtage. This interface needed insulation to prevent Titan's ambient-temperature hypergolic propellants from causing the boil-off of Centaur's cryogenic fuels. Najstarszy wariant, startował 22 razy w latach 1966–1969.. Titan 23B. Startował 23 razy w latach 1971–1984. The Centaur was also used for the Titan-3E and Titan-IV launch vehicles, in two versions. The Titan 23B was a basic Titan II with an Agena upper stage, and the Titan 24B was the same concept, but using the slightly enlarged Titan IIIM rocket as the base. $1.97. Titan est une famille de lanceurs lourds, qui furent utilisés entre 1959 et 2005 pour placer en orbite les satellites militaires américains de grande taille. LC -40 is shown in Figure J. Jupiter was in a more favorable position vis-a-vis Earth during the launch of Voyager 1 than during the launch of Voyager 2. Proposed by Martin for precise delivery of payloads beyond Titan 3C capacity into geosynchronous orbit. It was able to lift approximately 3,000 kg (6,600 lb) into a polar low-Earth circular orbit. The next launch, on 20 June 1967 was a partial failure; due to a problem with the protective skirt on the second stage, a lower-than-planned orbit was achieved. They are often accompanied by boars. This is a 1:15 scale model of the Titan IIIE rocket, developed by Martin Marietta for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Titan Centaur was launched from both Launch Complex (LC) 40 & 41. Never flown. When the new technician attempted to attach the bolt with the wrench specified in the assembly instructions, the wrench was too short and prevented him from screwing it into place properly. The Titan 23B space launch vehicle was a three-stage liquid fueled booster, designed to provide a small-to-medium weight class capability. [citation needed], http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/titan24b.htm, "History of Satellite Reconnaissance Volume 5, Management of NRP", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Titan_IIIB&oldid=996955477, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Engine thrust: 474,000 lbf (2,110 kN) vacuum, Weight: 258,000 pounds (117,000 kg) Fueled, Engine Thrust: 100,000 lbf (440 kN) vacuum, Skin and Stringer Construction – Tri-Sector Design, This Template lists historical, current, and future space rockets that at least once attempted (but not necessarily succeeded in) an orbital launch or that are planned to attempt such a launch in the future, * - Japanese projects using US rockets or stages, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 10:08. Several Atlas and Titan I rockets exploded and destroyed their silos. Titan 401, with a Centaur upper stage, could put 5.76 tons into GEO from Cape Canaveral. 1975 LAUNCH VIKING "A" ON TITAN/CENTAUR WITH MARS LANDER & ORBITER (ESP#3773) $6.95. Titan–3B. Free shipping. It also lived up to its promise of greater reliability than the Thor and Atlas, with only a few failures over its run. Najstarszy wariant, startował 22 razy w latach 1966–1969.. Titan 23B. Titan IIIB was the collective name for a number of derivatives of the Titan II ICBM and Titan III launch vehicle, modified by the addition of an Agena upper stage. Titan 3E – amerykańska rakieta nośna budowana przez spółkę Martin Marietta (obecnie Lockheed Martin), a także pierwsza rakieta Titan wyposażona w stopień Centaur, dotychczas używany w rakietach Atlas.Używana była do wysyłania sond międzyplanetarnych. The payload remained attached to the Agena stage. Od rakiety Titan 23B wyróżniał się jedynie zmienionym stopniem głównym, zapożyczonym od rakiety Titan 3M. Titan 401, with a Centaur upper stage, could put 5.76 tons into GEO from Cape Canaveral. Although it had been assumed debris would land near South Africa, pieces turned up in faraway Great Britain a few months later. Never flown. [citation needed], The Titan rocket family was established in October 1955, when the Air Force awarded The Martin Company a contract to build an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). Titan 3B. Titan I and Titan II were part of the US Air Force's intercontinental ballistic missile fleet until 1987. The bolt came loose, fell off, and got sucked into one of the LOX boost pumps, which jammed the pump and prevented its operation. [1]:145 With the Centaur in free-fall, a safety destruct command was issued at 748 seconds after liftoff. [1]:140 On June 26, NASA contracted with Martin Marietta to study its feasibility. Watch. free shipping. [citation needed], Various models of this Titan/Agena D rocket were called, "Titan 23B", "Titan 24B", "Titan 33B" and "Titan 34B". Launch Vehicle: Titan 3BAS2. Titan 3B for deep space missions with Centaur upper stage, Algol strapons for liftoff thrust augmentation. [citation needed], The Titan IIIB family emerged when the new KH-8 (Gambit Mark 3) photo reconnaissance satellite was being developed as the successor to the KH-7 Gambit Mark 1/2 which began flying in 1963. More than 140 Titan II ICBMs, once the vanguard of America's strategic deterrent force, were built. Négy fokozatú, soros elrendezésű rakétaegység. Titan 3B + Centaur + Algol-Booster (Titan 3BAS2) Dies ist eine von Martin Marietta im Jahre 1965 postulierte Version der Titan für schwere Raumsonden. The Titan 33B was a Titan 23B with the Agena (which had a smaller diameter than the Titan) enclosed in an enlarged fairing, in order to allow larger payloads t… In the early 1960s, NASA's long-range plan was to continue using Atlas-Centaur until a reusable launch system or a nuclear-powered upper stage could be developed. Using the U.S. Air Force Titan IIID as its basis, Titan IIIEs had liquid-fuel first and second stages, two strap-on solid rockets for extra boost at liftoff, and a liquid-fuel Centaur third stage. Never flown. This is a 1:15 scale model of the Titan IIIE rocket, developed by Martin Marietta for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Seria rakiet Titan 3B składała się aż z pięciu wariantów: . $1.98. Titan 4B with Milstar communications satellite separates four hours early, resulting in a useless low orbit, 30 Apr 1999 (S 24 4:26, R 19 36) ... Vmfh Centaur/Milstar upper-stage failure due to attitude-control system software (R 20 49); roll-rate filter constant .1 factor (-0.1992476, not -1.992476) (R 20 57,59) Using the U.S. Air Force Titan IIID as its basis, Titan IIIEs had liquid-fuel first and second stages, two strap-on solid rockets for extra boost at liftoff, and a liquid-fuel Centaur third stage. The final member of the Titan IIIB family was the Titan 34B which was a Titan 24B with the larger fairing used on the Titan 33B. Die NASA verwendete sie in den Jahren 1974–1977 zum Start der Raumsonden Helios , Viking und Voyager 1 sowie Voyager 2 . The Centaur's bulging shroud was proven to be aerodynamically stable during flight and had jettisoned properly and on schedule.[1]:145–6. $2.00 shipping. The rocket was launched on a proof flight designed to prepare it for twin Viking launches. If the same failure had occurred during Voyager 2's launch a few weeks earlier, the Centaur would have run out of propellant before the probe reached the correct trajectory. The mission of the satellite was to measure the interaction of space plasmas with the satellite's high-voltage surfaces. Titan 3B. This combination is referred in the early 1970s designations as Titan 3(23), Titan 3(24), Titan 3(33) and Titan … The space launch vehicle versions contributed the majority of the 368 Titan launches, including all the Project Gemini crewed flights of the mid-1960s. He thus used a slightly longer socket wrench that gave him more reach. Titan 3B je súhrnný názov pre niekoľko variantov a konceptov používajúcich vylepšené verzie prvého a druhého stupňa Titanu II. [1]:160 To compensate, the Centaur's on-board computers ordered a burn that was far longer than planned. Titan 3C7: Variant of Titan 3C with seven segment solid motors. [5] A launch of a Jumpseat satellite on 24 April 1981 was a partial failure when the Agena failed to separate. The Titan 23B was a basic Titan II with an Agena upper stage, and the Titan 24B was the same concept, but using the slightly enlarged Titan IIIM rocket as the base. Die Titan sollte durch 2 Algol-Stufen als Startbooster verstärkt werden. titan/centaur with german helios satellite launch cape canaveral, fl 12/10/74. The Titan IIIE or Titan 3E, also known as the Titan III-Centaur, was an American expendable launch system. Titan 3C7 American orbital launch vehicle. Sie fand jedoch später ihre Hauptanwendung als Trägerrakete in der Raumfahrt. Rovnako ako prvý bol aj … Mala nosnosť až 17 100 kg na nízku obežnú dráhu, alebo 3 600 kg na dráhu únikovú. Because Centaur was wider than the Titan's core stage, a tapering interface was required. Before the technician retired, he failed to inform his successor about this. The Titan 23B is a derivative of the Titan II vehicle with an Agena D upper stage added. The projected performance was a bit underwhelming. Outre son prix, il a une masse à vide beaucoup plus faible et il bénéficie d'une longue … Watch. Titan 3B for deep space missions with Centaur upper stage, Algol strapons for … Nieco zmodyfikowany wariant, startował 9 razy w latach 1969–1971.. Titan 24B. Použitý prvý stupeň Titan 3B-1 bol približne o 1,5 metra dlhší ako Titan 3A-1, motory boli zhodné LR-87-11. It appeared in a 1972 economic analysis of the proposed shuttle system as part of a potential expendable launch vehicle alternative fleet to the shuttle. Never flown. The Agena suffered a failure of a pneumatic regulator during ascent and reentered the atmosphere. [citation needed], The Titan 33B was a Titan 23B with the entire Agena and payload completely enclosed in a shroud. The same first-stage rocket engine was used with some modifications. The primary activities include facility preparation for … Starty 23 were launched in 1971-87 with two failures. The Titan performed normally during launch, but the Centaur's engines failed to start. The Titan stages burned as programmed, but when the Centaur stage failed to ignite, it was destroyed by the Range Safety Officer. Titan 3D was assembled with 3 stages from Titan 3B and the 2 lateral 5-segment boosters of Titan 3C. Variant of Titan 3C with seven segment solid motors. It became known as the Titan I, the nation's first two-stage ICBM and first underground silo-based ICBM. This type performed its last mission in 2003. The Titan IIIE or Titan 3E, also known as the Titan III-Centaur, was an American expendable launch system. The Titan 3E developped for civilian applications of NASA the top stage was a cryogenic Centaur . Proposed by Martin for precise delivery of payloads beyond Titan 3C capacity into geosynchronous orbit. The third stage was an Agena D XLR81-BA-9 liquid propellant rocket. or best offer. Titan 3B. Mala nosnosť až 17 100 kg na nízku obežnú dráhu, alebo 3 600 kg na dráhu únikovú. Die Titan sollte durch 2 Algol-Stufen als Startbooster verstärkt werden. Nieco zmodyfikowany wariant, startował 9 razy w latach 1969–1971.. Titan 24B. This bracket held a LOX regulator in place. Launched seven times between 1974 and 1977, it enabled several high-profile NASA missions, including the Voyager and Viking planetary probes and the joint West Germany-U.S. Helios spacecraft. Configuration of Titan 3B proposed by Martin in mid-1960's. Titan 3B, first flown on 29 July 1966, used an Agena-D upper stage. Má nosnost až 17100 kg na nízkou dráhu, nebo 3600 kg na dráhu únikovou. [citation needed], The Titan 34B was a Titan 24B, modified by the addition of the larger fairing used on the Titan 33B. Titan IIIB was the collective name for a number of derivatives of the Titan II ICBM and Titan III launch vehicle, modified by the addition of an Agena upper stage. TITAN 3B CENTAUR Titan 3B Centaur was proposed during the late 1960s/early 1970s period as a growth option for the 1980s and 1990s. [1]:145, The failure was traced to the Centaur boost pumps, but the cause remained unclear. La Titan 3B avec étage Agena. Engineers at the Lewis Research Center, however, ultimately persuaded their colleagues to put the Sphinx satellite on the flight instead of the VDS. Le lanceur est dérivé du missile balistique intercontinental SM-68 Titan et est caractérisé par le recours à des ergols hypergoliques stockables. Titan 403 was a no-upper-stage version that could put 14.89 tons into polar LEO from Vandenberg. The next flight of the Titan IIIE was on December 10, 1974, carrying the Helios-A spacecraft. This mission was successful, as were all subsequent launches. Die Titan-Rakete wurde ursprünglich als militärische Interkontinentalrakete von Martin Marietta gebaut. This type performed its last mission in 2003. Die Centaur-Oberstufe verwendete eine energiereichere Treibstoffkombination als die Transtage, so dass ihre Nutzlast für hohe Umlaufbahnen deutlich größer als bei der Titan IIIC war. In addition, further development of the reusable launch vehicle was postponed. [1], The Titan 24B differed from the Titan 23B in that the Titan IIIM core with extended propellant tanks was used in place of the original Titan II core. Titan 3B. Titan 3B + Centaur + Algol-Booster (Titan 3BAS2) Dies ist eine von Martin Marietta im Jahre 1965 postulierte Version der Titan für schwere Raumsonden. Titan was a family of United States expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005. By March 1969, this combination looked promising. space gemini titan i2 launch 11-11-1966 gorgeous orbit … It flew only three times (1971–73) with one failure and was used to launch Jumpseat satellites. TITAN 3B CENTAUR Titan 3B Centaur was proposed during the late 1960s/early 1970s period as a growth option for the 1980s and 1990s. So, NASA began in 1967 to consider the possibility of mating a Centaur upper stage with the Titan III. The Centaur was also used for the Titan-3E and Titan-IV launch vehicles, in two versions. Pri variante rakety Titan 3B bol nahradený stupeň Transtage kyslíkovodíkovým stupňom Centaur. It consisted of four separate rockets. This Template lists historical, current, and future space rockets that at least once attempted (but not necessarily succeeded in) an orbital launch or that are planned to attempt such a launch in the future, * - Japanese projects using US rockets or stages, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 15:55. Titan 3B. [7], The first launch of the Titan IIIE on February 11, 1974, was a failure. 1976 samos 108 launched by titan 3b - vandenberg afb, ca - u.s. #1596 (esp#3860) $6.95. U varianty rakety Titan 3B byl nahrazen stupeň Transtage kyslíkovodíkovým stupněm Centaur. It appeared in a 1972 economic analysis of the proposed shuttle system as part of a potential expendable launch vehicle alternative fleet to the shuttle. The diameter of the second stage was incr… [citation needed], Primary function: Launch vehicle used to lift medium class satellites into space:[citation needed], Titan 23B used the basic Titan 3A core with an Agena D upper stage. Starttömege 650 tonna. Durch vielfältige Modifikationen entstand eine ganze Familie von Interkontinental- und Trägerraketen. Od rakiety Titan 23B wyróżniał się jedynie zmienionym stopniem głównym, zapożyczonym od rakiety Titan 3M. All seven launches were conducted from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 41 in Cape Canaveral, Florida. Des versions de plus en plus puissantes ont été développées pou… Once held the record for a space probe's fastest velocity relative to the Sun. The most obvious change was enclosing Centaur in a large shroud to protect the stage and payload during ascent. [3], On 16 February 1972, a Titan III(33)B failed to achieve orbit carrying a Jumpseat satellite. [citation needed], Titan IIIB rockets suffered four outright failures, and two partial failures. It was not possible to determine the cause of the malfunction with certainty, but a fuel line obstruction was believed to be the most likely explanation. To reduce the chance of a second failure, pre-launch procedures were implemented to verify that Centaur's pumps were free and unobstructed. The first failure occurred on 26 April 1967 during the launch of a Gambit 3 satellite when the second stage suffered a sudden thrust decay which left it unable to achieve orbital velocity, sending the Agena and GAMBIT into the Pacific Ocean some 400 miles downrange. Startował 23 razy w latach 1971–1984. 54) Titan 3B: Titan 3B-25 / Agena D: 14 Jan 70: Success: KH-8 25 GAMBIT: 55) Titan 3C: Titan 3C-18: 8 Apr 70: Success: Vela Hotel 11 / Vela 6A, Vela Hotel 12 / Vela 6B Aufgrund ihrer mangelnden Zuverlässigkeit und der langwierigen Startvorbereitungen war sie als … The Martin Company was able to improve the design with the Titan II. Launched seven times between 1974 and 1977,[4] it enabled several high-profile NASA missions, including the Voyager and Viking planetary probes and the joint West Germany-U.S. Helios spacecraft. At cutoff, the Centaur was only 3.4 seconds from propellant exhaustion. NASA assigned management of the vehicle to the NASA Lewis Research Center (now known as the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field) with follow-on contracts with Martin Marietta to develop what became the Titan IIIE and General Dynamics to adapt the Centaur D-1.[5]. La Titan 3B est le nom donné à la version utilisant l'étage supérieur Agena D. Bien que moins puissant que le Transtage, cet étage a quelques atouts. The shroud made it possible to improve Centaur's insulation and thereby increase its coast time in orbit from thirty minutes when launched on an Atlas-Centaur to over five hours on the Titan IIIE. Dozens of missions, all launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base and carrying military satellites, were … Titan 3B for deep space missions with Centaur upper stage, Algol strapons for liftoff thrust augmentation. Titan malfunction caused premature second-stage engine cutoff, but successfully compensated by extended Centaur burn. Martin-Marietta had no answers except to suggest implementing better quality control measures during assembly of the Titan vehicles. Použitý prvý stupeň Titan 3B-1 bol približne o 1,5 metra dlhší ako Titan 3A-1, motory boli zhodné LR-87-11. Titan 3BAS2: Configuration of Titan 3B proposed by Martin in mid-1960's. The first Titan-Centaur lifts off from Launch Complex 41 at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station at 9:48 a.m. EDT on Feb. 11, 1974. Titan 402 used an IUS upper stage to put 2.86 tons to GEO from the Cape. The prevailing but unproven theory was that ice or debris caused the failure. This was used for the two Helios launches. Titan 3B for deep space missions with Centaur upper stage, Algol strapons for liftoff thrust augmentation.