On 10 June 1194, another fire caused extensive damage to Fulbert's cathedral. Le tracce principali dei piani costruttivi, basate sul sistema di numerazione duodecimale, furono messe in pratica direttamente dagli operai grazie alla corda a tredici nodi, uno degli strumenti dei compagnons. The diocese is part of the ecclesiastical province of Tours. One of the features of Chartres cathedral is the speed with which it was built – a factor which helped contribute to the consistency of its design. Opening on to the parvis (the large square in front of the cathedral where markets were held), the two lateral doors would have been the first entry point for most visitors to Chartres, as they remain today. Labyrinths were found in almost all Gothic cathedrals, though most were later removed since they distracted from the religious services in the nave. Each of these standing figures is shown symbolically triumphing over an enemy depicted in the base of the lancet beneath them – David over Saul, Aaron over Pharaoh, St Anne over Synagoga, etc. Grandioso esempio di arte gotica, il portale presenta temi metafisici, episodi della vita di Cristo (arcata di destra, con la nascita di Gesù), ma anche i mestieri legati alle stagioni e ai segni dello zodiaco. È un labirinto unicursale con una sola via d’uscita, una sorta di percorso salvifico, motivato dall'anelito alla trascendenza, ed articolato nel discernere il bene e dal male. Beyond this is a ring of twelve diamond-shaped openings containing the Old Testament Kings of Judah, another ring of smaller lozenges containing the arms of France and Castille, and finally a ring of semicircles containing Old Testament Prophets holding scrolls. Il rogo potrebbe oggi definirsi provvidenziale perché, dalle sue rovine, si avvieranno i lavori di ricostruzione che consegneranno, alla F… [7] The stained glass in the three lancet windows over the portals dates from some time between 1145 and 1155, while the south spire, some 103 metres high, was also completed by 1155 or later. The cathedral is featured in the television travel series The Naked Pilgrim; presenter Brian Sewell explores the cathedral and discusses its famous relic – the nativity cloak said to have been worn by the Virgin Mary. Beneath the rose itself are five tall lancet windows (7.5 m high) showing, in the center, the Virgin as an infant held by her mother, St Anne – the same subject as the trumeau in the portal beneath it. This buttressing plan was adopted by the other major 13th-century cathedrals, notably Amiens Cathedral and Reims Cathedral. L'arte del vetro, collegata principalmente proprio alla costruzione delle chiese, ebbe, com'è facile intuire, il suo massimo splendore tra il XII ed il XV secolo, quando in tutta Europa iniziarono a sorgere le … [27], The other 12th-century window, perhaps the most famous at Chartres, is the "Notre-Dame de la Belle-Verrière", or "The Blue Virgin". [37][38], The altar (18th century) by Charles-Antoine Bridan, Sculpture on the choir screen (16th–18th century), The high ornamental stone screen that separates the choir from the ambulatory was put in place between the 16th and 18th century, to adapt the church to a change in liturgy. Thanks to the buttresses, the architects of Chartres could eliminate the gallery entirely, make the triforium very narrow, and have much more room for windows above. The fairs were held in the area administered by the cathedral and were attended by many of the pilgrims in town to see the cloak of the Virgin. By the mid-12th century, the role of Chartres had waned, as it was replaced by the University of Paris as the leading school of theology. [36], One notable feature of the crypt is the Well of the Saints-Forts. [55] As well as greatly increasing the cathedral's income, throughout the 12th and 13th centuries this led to regular disputes, often violent, between the bishops, the chapter and the civic authorities – particularly when serfs belonging to the counts transferred their trade (and taxes) to the cathedral. It is located in the fifth bay of the south aisle and is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The new cathedral was constructed atop and around the remains of the 9th-century church. [27], Lancet windows under the west rose window; the Jesse Window or genealogy of Christ (right); Life of Christ (center), and the Passion of Christ (left), Notre-Dame de la Belle-Verrière » or the Blue Virgin (c.1180 and 1225), Detail of the Notre-Dame de la Belle-Verrière, These are the oldest windows in the cathedral. A legate of the Pope happened to be in Chartres at the time of the fire, and spread the word. Monumento emblematico della città di Chartres, nell'Eure-et-Loir, la cattedrale di Notre-Dame è ancora oggi considerata uno dei più begli esempi di cattedrale gotica in Francia.Costruito nel XII secolo, è classificato come monumento storico e patrimonio mondiale dell'UNESCO. On top of this structure he built the upper church, 108 meters long and 34 meters wide. The project went further; the walls in the nave were painted white and shades of yellow and beige, to recreate an idea of the earlier medieval decoration. Raffigurano principalmente santi e personaggi biblici: Noè, Giuseppe, il buon samaritano, il figliol prodigo, ma anche episodi della leggenda aurea di Jacopo da Varazze. The belief was that the steeples and towers were being used as a range for artillery. [23] The glorification of Mary in the center, the incarnation of her son on the left and Old Testament prefigurations and prophecies on the right. A vestige of this church, now known as Saint Lubin Chapel, remains, underneath the apse of the present cathedral. However, it was found three days later, protected by priests, who fled behind iron trapdoors when the fire broke out. It also contains a notable collection of 14th-century stained glass. Although in the 18th and 19th century these figures were mistakenly identified as the Merovingian monarchs of France (thus attracting the opprobrium of Revolutionary iconoclasts) they almost certainly represent the kings and queens of the Old Testament – another standard iconographical feature of Gothic portals. The ordinance assigned to the wine-sellers part of the crypt, where they could avoid the count's taxes without disturbing worshippers. The last statues were put in place in 1714. Ci sono stata due volte e entrambe le volte sono state speciali. Dal tempo della sua costruzione, la cattedrale di Chartres è un importante luogo di pellegrinaggio per i cattolici francesi. [30] The central oculus shows the Virgin and Child and is surrounded by twelve small petal-shaped windows, 4 with doves (the 'Four Gifts of the Spirit'), the rest with adoring angels carrying candlesticks. Traditionally it was claimed that these images represented the guilds of the donors who paid for the windows. He saved the building by pointing out that the vast amount of rubble from the demolished building would so clog the streets it would take years to clear away. Our works in stone, in paint, in print are spared, some of them for a few decades, or a millennium or two, but everything must finally fall in war or wear away into the ultimate and universal ash. Notre-Dame de Chartres had been saved. As well as the main sculptural areas around the portals themselves, the deep porches are filled with other carvings depicting a range of subjects including local saints, Old Testament narratives, naturalistic foliage, fantastical beasts, Labours of the Months and personifications of the 'active and contemplative lives' (the vita activa and vita contemplativa). Questi brevi appunti, le impressioni e le riflessioni che vi sono riportate, si riferiscono alla mia prima visita alla cattedrale di Chartres, effettuata nel 1990. Parigi era in effetti retta dai cattolici, che si opponevano al re a causa della sua religione protestante. Each of these columns is made from a single piece of stone. He was posthumously decorated with the Croix de Guerre avec Palme (War Cross 1939-1945), the Légion d'Honneur (Legion of Honour) and the Ordre National du Mérite (National Order of Merit) of the French government and the Distinguished Service Cross of the American government[11][12]. Souvenir personnalisé 'aviateur'. On the lintel are the Dormition (Death) and Assumption of the Virgin. La più antica è quella di sinistra, iniziata nel 1134 e completata nel 1516 con la realizzazione dell'elaborata cuspide in gotico flamboyant, opera di Jehan de Beauce, in seguito alla distruzione di quella in legno della fine del XII secolo, andata distrutta in un incendio nel 1506; ospita un concerto di sette campane fuse nel 1845 ad eccezione di quella denominata Timbre, risalente al 1520. The archivolts contain the signs of the zodiac and the labours of the months – standard references to the cyclical nature of time which appear in many Gothic portals. [31], Scene from the Good Samaritan window; Christ tells the Good Samaritan parable to the Pharisees, Shoemakers at work in the Good Samaritan window. The Royal Portal on the west facade, between the towers, the primary entrance to the cathedral, was probably finished between 1145 and 1245. It is lower than the rest of the crypt and may have been the shrine of a local saint, prior to the church's rededication to the Virgin Mary. Sapienza occulta nella Cattedrale di Chartres, 2003, Arkeios [5] The rebuilding proceeded in phases over the next century, culminating in 1145 in a display of public enthusiasm dubbed the "Cult of the Carts" – one of several such incidents recorded during the period. On certain days the chairs of the nave are removed so that visiting pilgrims can follow the labyrinth. Dalla stazione Montparnasse, in circa un’ora, è possibile raggiunge l’antica cittadina di Chartres. The rest of the weight is distributed by the vaults outwards to the walls, supported by flying buttresses. Klug Sonja U., Gotico segreto. The sculpture was originally designed for these portals, but the layouts were changed by successive masters, see careful lithic analysis by John James. [21] The harmonious appearance of the façade results in part from the relative proportions of the central and lateral portals, whose widths are in the ratio 10:7 – one of the common medieval approximations of the square root of 2. It was claimed that during this religious outburst, a crowd of more than a thousand penitents dragged carts filled with building supplies and provisions including stones, wood, grain, etc. Popular action-adventure video game Assassin's Creed features a climbable cathedral modelled heavily on the Chartres Cathedral. It was completed in 1150 and originally was just two stories high, with a lead-covered roof. Most feature the standing figure of a saint or Apostle in the upper two-thirds, often with one or two simplified narrative scenes in the lower part, either to help identify the figure or else to remind the viewer of some key event in their life. The right window, the Jesse Window, depicts the genealogy of Christ. Scopri I misteri della cattedrale di Chartres di Charpentier, Louis, Giacomelli, M. E.: spedizione gratuita per i clienti Prime e per ordini a partire da 29€ spediti da Amazon. Le navate laterali, che come quella mediana presentano volte a crociera, sono separate da arcate ogivali poggianti su pilastri polistili e sormontate da un triforio.[11]. In the center of the tympanum is Christ within a mandorla, surrounded by the four symbols of the evangelists (the Tetramorph). The cathedral is designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, which calls it "the high point of French Gothic art" and a "masterpiece".[2]. The Americans and their five divisions planned an alternative route to the Germans. E simboleggiano la Sacra Scrittura, che respinge quanto è nocivo, ma nello stesso tempo ci illumina. The central door is only opened for the entry of processions on major festivals, of which the most important is the Adventus or installation of a new bishop. Incorniciata da due torri, presenta un gruppo scultoreo di 19 grandi statue e più di 300 figure. [21], Il coro e l'abside presentano la decorazione pittorica parietale policroma barocca, progettata dall'architetto Victor Louis e realizzata in due fasi, nel 1770-1773 da Jean-Baptiste Hermand e Nicolas Montlevaux e nel 1786-1788 da Joseph Antoine Gontheinze, che andò ad inglobare entro colonne corinzie i pilastri polistili gotici;[22] il pavimento in marmi policromi, invece, risale al 1773 ed è opera di Nicolas Montlevaux. Il libro ebbe una certa rilevanza all'epoca della pubblicazione. - Fratello (n. 1270 - m. Nogent-le-Roi 1325) di Filippo il Bello re di Francia, la sua vita fu una lunga serie di tentativi per procurarsi un regno, tutti falliti, donde l'epiteto di "Senzaterra". The Well of the Saints Forts, in the Saint Fulbert Crypt, 12th century fresco in the Saint Lubin Crypt, showing the Virgin Mary on her throne of wisdom, with the Three Kings to her right and Savinien and Potenien to her left, The small Saint Lubin Crypt, under the choir of the cathedral, was constructed in the 9th century and is the oldest part of the building. The undamaged western towers and façade were incorporated into the new works, as was the earlier crypt, effectively limiting the designers of the new building to the same general plan as its predecessor. [8] Il ciclo iconografico presenta alcune scene dell'Antico Testamento e della vita della vergine Maria: in quello di sinistra vi sono l'Annunciazione (statue di sinistra), la Visitazione (statue di destra) e la Nascita di Gesù (lunetta); in quello centrale Eliseo ed Elia (alle estremità), Melchisedec, Abramo, Mosè, Samuele e Davide (statue di sinistra), Isaia, Geremia, Simeone, Giovanni Battista e Pietro (statue di destra), la Dormitio Virginis (architrave) e Incoronazione di Maria (lunetta); in quello di destra Sansone, la Regina di Saba e Salomone (statue di destra), Gesù figlio di Sirach, Giuditta e Gedeone (statue di destra), Giobbe (architrave) e il Giudizio di Salomone (lunetta). Two outer rings of twelve circles each contain the 24 Elders of the Apocalypse, crowned and carrying phials and musical instruments. Martin Filler, "A Scandalous Makeover at Chartres". Either way, the opportunity was taken to begin a complete rebuilding of the choir and nave in the latest style. Chartres Cathedral and, especially, its labyrinth are featured in the novels "Labyrinth" and "The City of Tears" by Kate Mosse, who was educated in and is a resident of Chartres' twin city Chichester.[62][63][64]. [3] It took its name from Lubinus, the mid-6th-century Bishop of Chartres. These works include statues of assorted monsters and demons. 1979–81. Retrieved 2019-11-06. The largest piece is shown in one of the ambulatory chapels above. Most obvious are the jamb statues affixed to the columns flanking the doorways – tall, slender standing figures of kings and queens from whom the Portail royal derived its name. It remains so to the present, attracting large numbers of Christian pilgrims, many of whom come to venerate its famous relic, the Sancta Camisa, said to be the tunic worn by the Virgin Mary at Christ's birth, as well as large numbers of secular tourists who come to admire the cathedral's architecture and historical merit. The middle window depicts the life of Christ, and the left window depicts the Passion of Christ, from the Transfiguration and Last Supper to the Resurrection. Il labirinto viene sgomberato dalle sedie ogni venerdì dalle 10:00 alle 17:00. All that’s left most artists seem to feel these days, is man. Those in the choir depict the kings of France and Castile and members of the local nobility in the straight bays, while the windows in the apse hemicycle show those Old Testament prophets who foresaw the virgin birth, flanking scenes of the Annunciation, Visitation and Nativity in the axial window. [13], While the floor plan was traditional, the elevation was bolder and more original, thanks to the use of the flying buttress to support the upper walls. Orson Welles famously used Chartres as a visual backdrop and inspiration for a montage sequence in his film F For Fake. Foto: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 La conversione degli edifici pagani della Gallia in luoghi di culto cristiani A statue of one of the martyrs, Modeste, is featured among the sculpture on the North Portico. The cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Chartres of the Diocese of Chartres. It was built without an interior wooden framework; the flat stone sides narrow progressively to the pinnacle, and heavy stone pyramids around the base give it additional support. Datata all'XI secolo, con i suoi 230 metri di lunghezza e i 5-6 metri di larghezza, è la più grande cripta di Francia. This ultimately led the Allies to Chartres in mid August 1944. Il prospetto è incorniciato tra due torri. Comprese le rosette, le 176 vetrate coprono una superficie di 2600 m². [5], On the night of 10 July 1194, another major fire devastated the cathedral. The screen has forty niches along the ambulatory filled with statues by prominent sculptors telling the life of Christ. Appunto di storia dell'arte su stile e architettura della cattedrale gotica Notre-Dame del tredicesimo secolo situata a Chartres, molto conosciuta per il labirinto disegnato sul pavimento. [5], The nave, aisles, and lower levels of the transepts of the new cathedral were probably completed first, then the choir and chapels of the apse; then the upper parts of the transept. It's a place for meditation, just walking around, just sitting, just looking at those beautiful things. [33] Another possible explanation is that the Cathedral clergy wanted to emphasise the universal reach of the Church, particularly at a time when their relationship with the local community was often a troubled one. The well is thirty-three metres deep and is probably of Celtic origin. Either side of this are four lancets showing the four evangelists sitting on the shoulders of four Prophets – a rare literal illustration of the theological principle that the New Testament builds upon the Old Testament. La Cattedrale di Chartres . Come un tempo, si avvista da lontano, dai campi di grano della Beauce pianeggiante. The arches and columns of the porch are lavishly decorated with sculpture representing the labours of the months, the signs of the zodiac, and statues representing the virtues and vices. Only the crypt, the towers, and the new facade survived. This was the first known use in a Gothic cathedral. Because of their greater distance from the viewer, the windows in the clerestory generally adopt simpler, bolder designs. An additional seven spires were proposed in the original plans, but these were never built. Opinions are uncertain as the sizes and styles of the figures vary and some elements, such as the lintel over the right-hand portal, have clearly been cut down to fit the available spaces. This window was a donation of the Mauclerc family, the Counts of Dreux-Bretagne, who are depicted with their arms in the bases of the lancets. [30], La cattedrale attuale risulta dalla sovrapposizione di sette edifici di epoche differenti, le cui parti non utilizzate come fondazioni per le costruzioni successive hanno formato due cripte concentriche. The cathedral is well-preserved for its age: the majority of the original stained glass windows survive intact, while the architecture has seen only minor changes since the early 13th century. Il portale della facciata settentrionale del transetto, anch'esso costituito da tre ingressi, è chiamato "portale dell'Alleanza" e venne scolpito tra 1205 ed il 1210. Chartres became a site for the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Questi raffigurano Maria e Gesù Bambino con figure del Vecchio Testamento; l’Apocalisse e altri episodi del Nuovo Testamento; e il Giudizio universale. Il velo è sempre esposto nel deambulatorio, al lato nord, in una delle cappelle absidali. [57] In fact, the Sancta Camisa was a gift to the cathedral from Charles the Bald and there is no evidence for its being an important object of pilgrimage prior to the 12th century. Torniamo in Europa, questa volta in Francia, a Chartres. The celebrated Black Madonna statue was cleaned, and her face was found to be white under the soot. One of the few parts of the cathedral to survive the 1194 fire, the Portail royal was integrated into the new cathedral. Il nuovo organo ha 67 registri e consolle a quattro tastiere e pedaliera; la sua trasmissione è elettrica. Mostly constructed between 1194 and 1220, it stands at the site of at least five cathedrals that have occupied the site since the Diocese of Chartres was formed as an episcopal see in the 4th century. [12], Il presbiterio attuale è situato nella crociera; rialzato su un basamento in blocchi squadrati di pietra di Berchères-les-Pierres (1993), è costituito da un insieme di arredi sacri sia fissi, sia mobili realizzati dallo scultore e orefice francese Goudji a partire dal 1992, e in gran parte classificati come monumento storico di Francia. Although the sculpture on the portals at Chartres is generally of a high standard, the various carved elements inside, such as the capitals and string courses, are relatively poorly finished (when compared for example with those at Reims or Soissons) – the reason is simply that the portals were carved from the finest Parisian limestone, or ' 'calcaire' ', while the internal capitals were carved from the local "Berchères stone", that is hard to work and can be brittle. The lintel shows the Twelve Apostles while the archivolts show the 24 Elders of the Apocalypse. [32], Il primo organo della cattedrale fu costruito nel 1349: questo strumento, di cui non si sa nulla, fu in seguito ampliato nel XV secolo e ricostruito da Robert Filleul fra il 1542 e il 1551, portando a due il numero delle tastiere. Canon Delaporte argued that building work started at the crossing and proceeded outwards from there,[47] but the evidence in the stonework itself is unequivocal, especially within the level of the triforium: the nave was at all times more advanced than ambulatory bays of the choir, and this has been confirmed by dendrochronology. [39], Plan of the labyrinth of Chartres Cathedral, Walking the labyrinth at Chartres Cathedral, The labyrinth (early 1200s) is a famous feature of the cathedral, located on the floor in the center of the nave. The cathedral was formally re-consecrated in October 1260, in the presence of King Louis IX of France, whose coat of arms was painted over the entrance to the apse. La decorazione dietro le statue presenta ancora influenze dello stile romanico con intrecci, colonnine e foglie d’acanto che testimoniano gli influssi dell’arte meridionale. [6], In 1134, another fire in the town damaged the facade and the bell tower of the cathedral. New Testament figures Simeon, John the Baptist, and Saint Peter, with his keys, Unidentified characters from the Old Testament, The statuary of the north transept portals is devoted to the Old Testament, and the events leading up to the birth of Christ, with particular emphasis on the Virgin Mary. For a definitive study of the social and economic life of medieval Chartres based on archive documents, see; André Chédeville, Stained glass windows of Chartres Cathedral, The Good Samaritan Window, Chartres Cathedral, Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Good Samaritan Window, Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres, "John James | International Center of Medieval ArtInternational Center of Medieval Art", "Let there be light? Alcuni pensano che il labirinto rappresenti un cammino simbolico che porta l'uomo dalla terra a Dio e il centro della figura rappresenta appunto la città di Dio, altri pensano (seguendo la corrente catara) che sia un Sancta Sanctorum, un percorso che permette il cammino interiore per giungere a Dio attraverso la preghiera e che culmina proprio nella rosa a sei petali che alcuni credono essere l'emblema della preghiera del Padre nostro. La cattedrale di Chartres (Francia) è uno dei capolavori dell’ architettura gotica, insieme con la cattedrale di Canterbury, in Inghilterra, il Duomo di Osten, in Germania, e il Duomo di Milano. Sono visibili il portale a tre ingressi e il rosone in alto al centro. [9], Il portale della facciata meridionale ha una struttura analoga a quello del prospetto nord, con tre ingressi aggettanti: quello centrale presenta nella lunetta una raffigurazione del Giudizio universale e nella strombatura le statue di dieci degli Apostoli; quello di sinistra è dedicato ai santi martiri (statue della strombatura), in particolare a santo Stefano (lunetta), mentre quello di destra ai confessori (statue della strombatura), con scene emblematiche della vita di San Nicola e San Martino nella lunetta. A celebration to God’s glory and to the dignity of man. Copies of the Chartres labyrinth are found at other churches and cathedrals, including Grace Cathedral, San Francisco. Alla base sono disposti alcuni massi sagomati accanto a… A more serious fire broke out on 7 September 1020, after which Bishop Fulbert (bishop from 1006 to 1028) decided to build a new cathedral. He appealed to the royal houses of Europe, and received generous donations for the rebuilding, including a gift from Cnut the Great, King of Norway, Denmark and much of England. Christian Martyrs framing the South Portal (13th century); including the "Perfect Knight" Roland,(far left) and Saint George (second from right). [24] Fra gli artisti che vi lavorarono nel corso dei secoli, sono annoverati Jehan Soulas (autore delle statue più antiche), François Marchand, Thomas Boudin, Jean Dedieu, Pierre I Legros, Jean-Baptiste II Tuby, Simon Mazière; l'architettura venne disegnata da Jehan de Beauce, autore del coronamento della torre nord. In 1753, further modifications were made to the interior to adapt it to new theological practices. [60], Today Chartres continues to attract large numbers of pilgrims, many of whom come to walk slowly around the labyrinth, their heads bowed in prayer – a devotional practice that the cathedral authorities accommodate by removing the chairs from the nave on Fridays from Lent to All Saints' Day (except for Good Friday).[61].